Global transportation activity is expected to double by 2050, leading to a 16% rise in emissions, even when accounting for current commitments to decarbonising operations. The railway industry significantly contributes to this, with passenger and freight operations consuming large amounts of carbon-based fuels and other natural resources. While the industry is committed to change, it faces several significant challenges regarding reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving overall sustainability. The railway industry is among those working to meet the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, adopted in 2015 to help end poverty, protect the planet, and improve the standard of life globally by 2030. Despite its contributions to greenhouse gas emissions, the worldwide rail network is surprisingly energy and carbon efficient.