The Pentagon’s strategy for proactive disruption of malicious activity has been influenced by the unfolding events in Ukraine, according to a classified document sent to Congress. The US Department of Defense’s 2023 DoD Cyber Strategy is not immediately available to view, but a fact sheet summarized some of the key points for public consumption. “Since 2018, the department has conducted a number of significant cyberspace operations through its policy of defending forward, actively disrupting malicious cyber activity before it can affect the US Homeland,” it noted. “This strategy is further informed by Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, which has demonstrated how cyber capabilities may be used in large-scale conventional conflict.” Russia’s invasion of Ukraine saw an unprecedented blurring of the lines between conventional conflict and cyber-warfare, with online operations often used ahead of kinetic attacks. Just two months in, Microsoft claimed that at least six Russian state-aligned actors launched 237 campaigns against Ukrainian targets, including destructive attacks, espionage and misinformation campaigns.